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44064 Downloads1 I Published: 04 Sep ,2017
Branding refers to the process of developing a unique name and image for a commodity in the minds of consumers mainly with the help of advertising and other promotional campaigns. In the present era due to rise in competition level it has become necessary for every firm to develop its own brand so that customers can perceive it positively and in tun acts as development tool for the enterprise (Birgelen and Wetzels, 2005). Through strong brand firms can easily differentiate itself from those of competitors in the market and can easily grab ample of opportunities being present in the business environment. In short it can be said that branding is the key element in marketing where some objectives are being developed which good brand wants to accomplish in the market such as connects target market emotionally, motivating the buyers, delivering the message clearly etc. A strong brand is invaluable for the customers and high amount is being spend by enterprise for developing its brand in the market with the objective to increase sales and overall profitability. Without strong brand presence of the firm in the entire market is not at all felt and in turn has negative impact on the entire company (Cravens. 2006). It is regarded as the idea or image that consumers connect with by assessing the logo, slogan, name or design of the business enterprise who owns idea or image. At the time of marketing or promoting products brands are promoted and on this basis consumers take decision whether to buy products of the enterprise or not. On the other hand, company invests high amount in promoting its brands and in turn leads to rise in performance level in the market where operations are being carried out. It is a kind of promise to customers and is regarded as most valuable asset of the entity and in case if reputation of the company is not up to the mark then no individual will prefer to buy products of the organization.
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Further, it is well known fact that branding affects consumer behaviour and it is considered as most important factor on the basis of which products are purchased by the customers. Before buying any type of commodity consumers ensure its brand image in the market and in case customers are highly satisfied with the range of products then it leads to rise in sales (Frank, 2011). Moreover, consumers does not buy product they buy brands and pay for it even when prices are kept by firm high. Branding also leads to brand loyalty due to which customers prefer to repurchase the products on continuous basis. Brand usually provides base to the company to differentiate its products from those of competitors present in the market. Further, the strategic branding directly leads to strong brand equity which highlights the added value to products and services of enterprise and this assist firm to charge more for brand than what identical and unbranded products command. In market many strong brands are present in the market for instance in mobile industry leading players such as Apple, Samsung, Sony etc are enjoying the benefits of strong brand image in the market and majority of the customers are loyal towards the products being offered by entity to its target market (Gilmore, 2010). Through brand company delivers some kind of message to customers and is also regarded as promise due to which customers are easily encouraged to buy the products. Promotional activities are designed with the help of which firm shows what benefits can be obtained by firm after purchasing products of specific brand. No doubt factors such as price, quality matters a lot before purchasing any type of commodity but on the basis of brand final decision is taken as in case presence of the company is present worldwide then it is sure that customer will prefer to buy product of that firm instead of others in the market.
On the other hand most important factor considered in the modern era is consumer behaviour which represents whether customer is satisfied with the range of products or not. Various promotional and marketing activities are designed by firm so that consumers may perceive its brand positively and it is regarded as key to success of the organization (Ivy, 2008). Further, it is well known fact that company whose branding is strong and consumers behave positively is regarded as the leader in the market and assist management to deal with the challenges present in the business environment. Investment in development of brand is increasing at faster pace so that loyal customers of the firm can be retained easily for longer period of time and overall acts as development tool. Furthermore, it helps in comparison as branding strategy of two firms can be compared with one another and it can be known which company is efficient enough in meeting with requirement of its target market (Mason, 2007).
For carrying out the present study two organizations have been chosen namely Apple and Samsung that operates in electronics market and sells mobile phones, tablet and other type of electronic gadgets. Apple is a American multinational technology firm headquartered in Cupertino, California that designs, develops and sells consumer electronics, software, online services and personal computers. Main products of firm are Ipod, Iphone, Ipad, Apple Tv, Watch, Ilife, Iwork and iOS. At present 437 retail stores of firm are present in 15 countries and its presence is felt worldwide (About us., 2015). Iphone of company are popular in every market and in this sector main competitors present involves Samsung, Sony etc. Organization is well known for its quality products and prices are also kept high so that customers can experience the benefit of purchasing Apple products and due to this basic reason firm is worldwide famous in the market. Apple's worldwide annual revenue in 2014 totalled US$182 billion and it is the due to the main reason behind its brand loyalty customers which firm enjoys. Organization is highly innovative and creative which allows management to develop highly advanced products that matches with the requirement of its target market and improves overall performance. Other companies such as Samsung, Sony are not able to compete with Apple as the technology being used by firm is unique in nature and this in turn is having positive impact on the brand image of firm.
Further, another organization chosen for study is Samsung which is a south korean multinational conglomerate firm headquartered in Samsung town, Seoul. Range of products of firm includes consumer electronics, telecommunication equipments etc. Mobile phone and tablets produced by Samsung are also famous worldwide and at present company has acquired large market share by working in favour of its customers (About us., 2015). Organization strongly relies on need and wants of its target market and this the basic reason behind stronger customer base of the entity in the market. Entire range of galaxy line of devices is popular in the market and supports organization to deal with its target market. Firm has employed 326000 staff members that provides support in carrying out crucial operations efficiently. Business enterprise strongly focuses on quality and this is assisting company in increasing sales volume of its major products. Samsung is strongly offering different type of products so as to compete with Apple and all its Iphone models.
The main problem associated with the study is to compare branding and consumer behaviour attributes of Apple and Samsung. Both factors plays crucial role in the modern era. The entire study is important as without branding its presence cannot be felt in the market and it directly affects behaviour of consumers in the market. Through this study it can be known whether effective strong brand strategy has impact on performance for organization in the market or not. Further, companies are strongly focusing on development of its brand image so that its target market may perceive positively and in turn sales level can rise through this. Therefore, through this the main significance of the problem can be known easily.
The main reason with which this study has been carried out is to “Compare the branding and consumer behaviour attributes of Apple and Samsung”. Branding plays crucial role in the present era as through this company differentiates itself from those of competitors in the market and assist in improving overall performance. Through this it is possible for firm to accomplish its desired objectives in effective manner. Every organization operates in market where lot of complexities and hurdles are present, therefore need of strong brand is felt and firms are investing large amount so that it can easily deal with the challenges that is leading to decline in overall performance. Furthermore, consumer behaviour is also affected by the branding strategies adopted by firm and in case if brand image is strong then large number of customers can be easily attracted towards the products. Further, through this the aim to increase brand loyalty in the market can be accomplished easily and supports in improving performance.
The main problem associated with the study is to compare the consumer behaviour attributes and branding of Apple and Samsung. Further, through this it is possible to identify which firm is popular in the market as in case if consumers are highly satisfied with the products offered by enterprise then it supports entity to become leader in the market and vice versa. Therefore, by conducting this study it is possible to determine company who is effective in satisfy need and requirement of its target market so that its overall performance can be improved in the market.
For carrying out the study in effective manner aim has been developed along with objectives and through this it is possible to obtain expected findings after carrying out the study.
Aim: “To compare Branding and consumer behaviour attributes of Apple and Samsung”
Furthermore, following are the objectives developed for the present study
According to Bradley (2013) it has been evaluated that branding can be considered as systematic process used by an organization for creating a unique name and market image of company as well as its products within perception of consumer (Bradley, 2013). Further Foxall (2006) argued that business entity used wide range of advertisement as well as marketing compaigns for achieving the branding objectives such as product differentiation and to win loyalty of consumers (Foxall, 2006). As per the study of Brady (2010) it found that branding can be termed as a part of marketing practices that aimed to create unique, name, symbol and special identity of organization. They and their research identified that an effective branding strategy could provide competitive edge in increasingly competitive market but the main objective of banding was differentiation of products as compared to products of other organization (Kotler and Armstrong, 2005). Solomon and Previte (2012) examined that different companies used wide range of of creative branding tactics and tools as per the market situation of contemporary business era such as website of company, packaging tools, promotional material, sports events, logo of company etc.
The study of Zaichkowsky, (2009) defined that the quality of product was a most important factor of branding process because it consumer satisfied with quality and price of product of particular organization than business entity won the loyalty of consumers for long duration. Researcher further argued that growth in business through referral termed as better approach as compare to advertisement because people gave extra importance of view of friends and family members during the purchasing of products rather than advertisements of organization (Klimchuk and Krasovec, 2013). Kapur (2009) explained that sponsorship of events played significant role for increasing awareness of products in the mind of target of consumers. Research further analyzed that sponsorship of wide range of sport events, musical events etc. created huge impact on goodwill and customer awareness about the products and services of particular organization (Aswathappa, 2008). As per the views of Donald and Brady (2010) it can be stated that charity donation could be considered as a best way to promote brand and organization because people loved the caring brand so they would consider the brand as a good business organization when they knew about special offers of company, product and helps to less fortunate groups (Donald and Brady, 2010).
Market Size: The researcher Richter (2012) examined that market size played most important during branding scheduling of branding operations of organization. Neame, (2007) further argued that when the market size for the particular product category was very big then a company could adopt a product branding approach but investments in brand would not be justified in small size of a market (Neame, 2007). In this market situations, business could consider other options such as double branding, umbrella branding or endorsement branding that would reduce cost of branding.
Uniqueness of product: The study of Huber (2006) found that product newness considered as one the most important factor branding. They and their research identified that when private companies and markets grow, there was a proliferation of new products identified that had provided tremendous and wide range of choices of brands within different product categories that it increased difficulties for the customers in order to take a purchase decision regarding selection of new product (Nesdale, 2004).
Innovation and technology: Saastamoinen (2010) determined that technology and disruptive innovations had greatly influenced marketing and branding operations of organization. Tiu Wright (2009) further argued that business entity had to make sure about the success of the new product branding approaches if the product failed due to some reason then the sales and revenue of other brands and products should not get negatively affected (Tiu Wright, 2009). Development of strong brand image in the market encourages customers to buy products of the firm and positive mouth to mouth publicity reduces efforts of the company that has to be applied while promoting its products in the market. Therefore branding is regarded as most crucial factor that is considered before purchasing any type of commodity.
Brand equity directly represents the value of having well known brand name and it is based on the belief that owner of well known brand name can generate more funds from the products with that brand name than from the commodities with a less known brand name. As per view of Saastamoinen (2010) for a specific brand to become strong in the market it is necessary to achieve two things where first one is to retain current customers and attracting the new one with the aim to achieve desired aims and objectives of the organization. Brand equity is significant for organization due to three basic reason where it creates value for shareholders, built competency for firm and provides an array of growth opportunities for the business (Simkin, 2008). Therefore, this supports in increasing profitability of the enterprise and in turn supports firm to gain competitive advantage.
According to Punyatoya, Sadh and Mishra (2014) it defined that Consumer behaviour can be considered as a study of how an individual customers, groups of people or organizations selected and preferred to satisfy their needs and desire. In addition to that it refereed to the act of the consumers in particular market place (Clarke, Owens and Ford, 2000). The study of Griffith (2010) found that there were several factors influenced consumer behaviour such as personal like age, gender, education, income level of target consumers along with market factors like price, promotion and packaging of products . Further Hewett and Bearden (2001) argued that behaviour of consumer was not static and it had grown through under the regular changes and it varied from consumer and consumers, region to region and country to country.(Hewett and Bearden, 2001)
Cultural factor: Lee and Carter (2011) explained that Consumer behaviour was greatly influenced by different kinds of cultural factors like buyer culture, subculture, and social class. In addition to that culture considered as the most important part of every society that greatly influenced the individual wants and behavior. The research of Viswanathan and Dickson (2007) examined that every business organization who managing business operations in all over the world then market and branding plan of particular organization influenced by the variation in culture and buying behaviour of people that was varied from country to country (Viswanathan and Dickson, 2007).
Reference group: Zou and Cavusgil (2002) evaluated that reference groups had too much potential in forming of the a person's attitude or behavior. Further it has been identified that the impact of reference groups had been varied as per the products and brands. Muhamad, Melewar and Alwi (2012) described that the family was a most important element that influenced purchase decisions of an individual. Therefore marketers and various advertisement agencies tried to assess the roles and influence of the husband, wife and children and various others family members.
Family members: If the buying decision of consumer for a particular product was influenced by wife then business organization had to consider several elements to encourage consumer and their families (Hassan, Craft and Kortam, 2003). The research of Simkin (2008) concluded that age of target consumers created huge impact on selection of products and services. Further researcher identified that age and life-cycle greatly affected the consumer buying behaviour. The change in age of consumers also influenced the purchase and selection of goods and services with the transition of time (Paltayian, 2012).
Level of competition: In the present era, due to rise in overall competition level in the market it has become necessary for every firm to understand need and wants of its target market efficiently and products must be offered to them on the basis of requirement. Further, consumer behaviour is affected by large number of factors such as price, quality etc of product and such factors must be considered necessarily.
Personal and physiological factor: As per view of Blankson and Kalafatis, (2007) the most crucial factor affecting consumer behaviour are personal, social and physiological. Personal factors are linked with characteristics or attributes that are specific to a person and takes into consideration the way in which individual takes decision, unique habits, opinions and interest. Further, at the time of considering personal factors, decisions are directly influenced by gender, age, background and other type of personal issues linked with individual. Further, physiological factor is linked with the perception of need, ability of individual to learn or understand information, and overall attitude of person. Moreover, it is well known fact that every individual will respond to marketing message on the basis of own perception or attitude (Henson and Wilson, 2002) . Therefore, it is necessary for marketers to use physiological factors at the time of designing any promotional campaign and it can be ensured whether through this factor it is possible to encourage customers to buy the products or not.
Social factors: Furthermore, Andersen (2001) argued that social factors have direct impact on the behaviour of consumers and it takes into consideration social interaction, social class such as income of individual and education level. Social factors are regarded to be diverse and acts as hurdle at the time of developing any specific marketing plan (Caine, 2013). Therefore at the time of developing any type of plan or strategy these factors must be considered necessarily as they have direct influence on consumer behaviour (Klimchuk and Krasovec, 2013). By considering social, physiological and personal factor it is possible for company to improve its overall performance in the market as it directly leads to rise in brand loyalty and encourages customers to buy products of firm on regular basis.
Further, various stages are present in the consumer decision making process which starts from need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase of products and services and post purchase evaluation. As per view of Ostapenko, 2011 in the first stage of need recognition consumer identifies the need of purchasing any commodity and it acts as catalyst which triggers the buying decision of individuals. In the second stage of information gathering consumer search for alternatives with the help of which data can be gathered linked with products and the most appropriate sources of information present includes commercial, personal, public etc. According to Punyatoya, Sadh and Mishra, 2014 after gathering information from the alternatives present they are evaluated by consumers and products are purchased on the basis of basis of information evaluated. In the last stage post purchase evaluation takes place where consumer examines where need has been satisfied or not. Therefore, the entire process is crucial and affects the behaviour of consumer (Paltayian, 2012).
As per view of Viswanathan and Dickson, 2007 branding has direct impact on consumer behaviour as packaging, advertising, media attention of specific brand contributes in brand identity. Brand meets expectations of the target market and large number of efforts are being applied by firm in order to satisfy need of target market in efficient manner. Brand changes perception of the consumers as in case if it satisfies need of the target market then it influences consumer to become loyal towards the company and this improves organizational performance in the market (Tiu Wright, 2009). On the other hand when any specific brand is not being able to satisfy need of customers then consumers does not prefer to buy its products and this has adverse impact on the enterprise. Therefore, in this way branding affects consumer behaviour and due to attractive, packaging, advertisement etc target market is influenced to buy the products and acts as development tool.
However, Ostapenko (2011) argued that consumer behaviour directly represents whether target market of the firm is satisfied with the present range of products or not. Due to presence of more substitutes in the market it is required for firm to satisfy need of its customers and in case if they are not satisfied then it can lead to decline in sales along with overall profitability of the company. Furthermore, in the entire mobile industry different companies are present that offers different types of mobile phones such as Sony, Samsung, Apple etc (Consumer behaviour, 2006). Moreover, taste and preference of every consumer differs from one another due to which firm has to meet with requirement of every customer. Majority of the customers buys mobile phone after considering its brand, quality and price. In short brand matters a lot in the present era and companies such as Apple and Samsung are enjoying the benefit of strong brand image in the market and it is directly affecting sales volume of the company.
As per view of Aswathappa (2008) quality is regarded as one of the most significant factor and in case when customers are not satisfied with the quality of commodity then it is not possible to influence customer to buy that product in the market. Company such as Apple does not compromises in quality of its and they are generally kept high as it has positive impact on the brand image of the enterprise in the market and this is the basic reason due to which Apple is considered as leader in the market. Further, prices are kept high by the firm which shows the level that firm has maintained and supports in distinguishing product of Apple from those of competitors present in the market (Neame, 2007). Organization is highly innovative and creative too and all its core competencies assist in satisfying need of its target market efficiently. Further, social factor directly influences consumer behaviour due to which entity has adopted every possible way so as to create social impact on its target market. As per view of Saastamoinen (2010) timely modifications must be done in products so that customers may not prefer to buy products of other brands in the market which will have adverse impact on the company.
In the modern era, majority of the youngsters prefer to buy mobile phones and other electronic devices which are advanced and contains unique features. Therefore, due to this basic reason firms have started to introduce new models in the market so that customers may perceive its brand positively and firm can become famous worldwide. According to Punyatoya, Sadh and Mishra (2014) it is not easy for company to understand the behaviour of consumers in the market as it is complex in nature and in turn affected by large number of factors which organization has to consider necessarily. Social reference group has also direct influence on the behaviour of consumer and manufacturers of mobile phones in the market are applying interpersonal influence in their advertising along with marketing practices (Clarke, Owens and Ford, 2000). Day by demand for mobile phones is increasing at faster way due to which companies are searching for effective ways so as to satisfy need of target market appropriately. However, Lee, K., and Carter (2011) argued that due to rise in demand product lie cycle of mobile phones have become shorter and due to which new products are launched in the market rapidly. Furthermore, majority of the customers prefer to buy mobile phone on the basis of brand image in the market as it is built when target market is satisfied with the range of products. So, main focus of every firm is on development of its brand image in the market and various techniques have been employed for the same. This has supported companies to gain competitive advantage and is providing strength to face challenges present in the business environment (Ostapenko, 2011). Through, this organizations are being capable to retain its most loyal customers for long period of time and in turn supports to deal with the external factors affecting its overall performance.
The literature review being carried out has shown how branding influences consumer behaviour and what are the factors that influences consumer to buy the commodities. Brand image of Apple and Samsung is quite strong in the market and due to this reason firm is earning high profits by offering products to its target market. Further, every product is designed keeping in view taste and preference of its target market. Quality of Apple products are well appraised in the market and majority of the customers are attracted towards it. On the other hand various factors are present due to which consumer behaviour is affected and this includes social, cultural, personal etc. Therefore organization must consider all these factors at the time of promoting its products in the market.
It is the third chapter of the dissertation and is regarded as very important as it covers major areas of the research such as research design, approach, data collection and other methods being used for carrying out the study in appropriate manner. Research methodology is associated with the aspect of methodology and decision making consideration for acquiring alternatives present with the researcher. The entire section is linked with decision making process and is related to tools and techniques that supports in conducting the research in effective manner. The present chapter shows the methods and other type of tools being used for carrying out the research including technique of data analysis, research approach, design etc. On the other hand, ethical and reliability issues have also been considered that have been faced by investigator at the time of carrying out study.
Research approach is the course through which research can be carried out in appropriate manner. With the help of appropriate techniques, researcher can easily take various decisions that are associated with tools that assist in conducting study efficiently (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). Further, through approach it is possible to develop right methodologies due to which chances of omission decreases. Two types of research approaches are present namely inductive and deductive. Inductive approach is linked with the observations and theories that are expanded towards the end of research as a result of examination of entire research. Whereas, deductive approach is related with development of hypothesis which is resultant from the proposition of theory.
In the present study inductive approach has been used where new theory has been generated from the data acquired by the researcher. In short the entire research is qualitative in nature and main stress is on exploring new phenomena from a different perspective. Further, main reason behind not selecting the deductive approach is that specified results can be obtained from the study instead of generalized one (Schostak and Schostak, 2012). Therefore, through this it can be said that the approach being employed for conducting study is appropriate and in turn expected results can be obtained easily through this.
Philosophy is linked with the values and beliefs of the researcher towards the application of outcomes of the study in various context. It assist in identifying the appropriate tool to data analysis and supports in knowing whether main objective of carrying out study has been accomplished or not. Generally two type of research philosophies are present namely interpretivism and positivism. For carrying out the present study positivism has been chosen as one of the philosophy so that overall aims and objectives set for the study can be attained easily (Sekaran and Bougie, 2010). Further, the basic reason behind selecting this philosophy is that it emphasizes more on empirical data and the scientific methods. On the other hand main reason behind not selecting interpretivism philosophy is that it is linked with philosophical position of idealism and is used in order to group together diverse approaches which also involves social constructivism, phenomenology etc.
Research strategy refers to the plan of action that provides direction to the efforts being applied by researcher and assist in carrying out the study appropriately as per aims and objectives set. Different type of research strategies are being present such as case study, survey, experimentation, action research etc (Silverman, 2013). In the present study case study research strategy has been used as the entire study is based on Apple and Samsung in order to assess their branding and consumer behaviour attributes. Other strategies such as experimentation and survey are not beneficial as it can be used when any specific case is not provided in the study.
Research design refers to the arrangement of condition for obtaining and analysing information in a manner so that aims and objectives of the study can be accomplished in appropriate manner. Different type of research designs are present such as exploratory, descriptive, casual and experimental. In the present study descriptive research design has been adopted where description of the topic being chosen for the research has been provided in order to compare the branding and consumer behaviour attributes of Samsung and Apple (Yanow and Schwartz-Shea, 2013). Furthermore, it assist reader in understanding about the topic better and more appropriate results can be obtained easily. On the other hand other type of research designs such as exploratory is not appropriate for the study where main motive is to explore new ideas through study. Experimental as research design is also not suitable for the research where different type of experiments is being carried out so as to identify the best outcome after conducting the research.
Research type highlights the nature of the study in which different type of methods can be adopted for carrying out the research in effective manner. Before conducting study it is necessary to identify its type so that methods can be adopted accordingly. Two type of studies are present such as qualitative and quantitative. Present study is quantitative in nature as data is present in numeric form and it is based on quantitative techniques (Yin, 2014). The research is all about considering statistical tools such as mean, mode and median. Through this type of research it is possible to determine which company is effective whether Samsung or Apple in terms of Branding and consumer behaviour attributes. Further, it will become possible to accomplish the desired aims and objectives of the research and it turn can increase efficiency.
For carrying out study in effective manner it is necessary to collect information from the sources present and this directly assists in obtaining expected findings. Basically two techniques of data collection are present namely primary and secondary. Primary information is collected for first time and such type of information is not used in any other study. Therefore, by using this type of information researcher increases overall value of the study (Fowler, 2009). On the other hand secondary sources are also present of data collection where information is acquired from studies done in the past and various books, journals and online articles are referred for the same.
In the present study information has been gathered from existing customers of Apple and Samsung as they can provide appropriate information about branding of the firm and other factors that affects their behaviour and they take purchase decision. The information collected from customers has supported in obtaining effective findings. On the other hand for collecting secondary information various books, journals and online articles have been used. Therefore, through this it can be said that information acquired can support in accomplishing the desired aims of the study.
Sampling plays most important role in the entire study as sample size is being chosen from whom information is being acquired for conducting research. It is regarded as one of the most significant characteristic of research methodology that relies on the adoption of most suitable sample size. It is conducted in effective manner and divided into two parts namely probabilistic and non probabilistic sampling. By achieving the subset from the population significant elements in the research can be build easily and in turn acts as development tool (Hammersley and Traianou, 2012). For carrying out the present study probabilistic sampling technique has been adopted where 60 customers of Apple and Samsung has been chosen. Further, random sampling has been chosen where every respondent has equal chances of being selected. On the other hand, the sample size chosen is suitable for the research as with the help of this information can be obtained easily which is fruitful for the research. The main reason behind selecting customers of Apple and Samsung as sample is that they posses capability to provide up to data and accurate information to the researcher linked with branding and consumer behaviour attributes on the basis of which comparative analysis can be done and it can be done which firm is better and efficient too.
Data analysis plays most significant role in the research as the information collected from primary source has to be analysed so as to know about overall findings being derived. Basically two techniques are present of analysing information namely qualitative and quantitative. In qualitative technique data is analysed with the help of themes formed and overall response of the respondents can be known easily for obtaining outcomes as expected by the investigator. Whereas, in quantitative technique different statistical tools are being used for analysing information such as mean, mode, median etc (Hoy, 2009). Both the techniques are considered to be effective but it depends on every type of research which technique to use for analysing information.
For carrying out the present research quantitative technique has been used for analysing information where different statistical tools have been adopted and comparative analysis of both the firm namely Samsung and Apple in terms of branding and consumer behaviour attributes can be done easily which is the ultimate aim of this study.
Research reliability assist investigator in eliminating any kind of inconsistency and dissimilarity which is linked with the research and it directly acts as hurdle in achieving the aims and objectives of the research. Reliability is regarded as the most important factor as it assist investigator in carrying out the research in effective manner and main stress is on safety of standardization and uniformity of outcomes. Further, with the help of research validity it is possible to assess the exactness from the accomplished aims and objectives so that proper sequence of the research can be developed easily (Israel, 2009). It helps in determining the accuracy of the study being conducted and helps in ensuring whether main objectives set have been achieved or not. The entire study has been carried out in appropriate manner where researcher has take effective measures in advance so as to avoid omission and other type of situations that are not favourable for the research. Further, researcher has paid more attention on various activities such as data collection, analysis etc. Information has been obtained by interacting with customers of Samsung and Apple. Therefore, through this it can be said that research being conducted is reliable and valid as all the major areas have been focused due to which reliability issue arises. Further, an type of secondary information that has been published before the year 2000 has not been take into account as in case if data published is very old then it can reduce reliability and validity of the research which is not in favour of the investigator.
At the time of carrying out research in effective manner it is required to consider the ethical aspects as they play significant role in the study. While conducting study various ethical challenges arises due to which it is required for researcher to deal with them. Therefore, to deal with this situation investigator has taken effective measures in advance where all the important information collected from the customers of Apple and Samsung has been kept private and in secured manner so that other parties may not be able to access it for their personal purpose (Creswell, 2013). Further, various efforts have been incorporated with the objective to safeguard interest of customers. Due to privacy information sometime respondents does not prefer to take part in the research and it prevents from accomplishing the aims and objectives of the study.
Limitations refers to the hurdles that affects entire study and it becomes difficult for researcher to accomplish the aims and objectives of the research. At the time of conducting study investigator has to face many limitations as it is well known fact that no study is free from baisness inspite of various actions taken well in advance (Dane, 2000). Time is one of the major limitation that affected overall study as researcher has to collect information from customers of Samsung and Apple and they did not have appropriate time to provide valuable information. Furthermore, cost was also one of the limitation where to approach each and every customer was costly for the investigator and it acted as hurdle. So these were some of the limitations faced by researcher at the time of conducting study.
The entire chapter of research methodology represents the tools and techniques being adopted for conducting the study in effective manner. All the methods and techniques used are effective and can provide base to the study. Further, through this it can be easily known whether branding of Samsung is effective or Apple in the market. Data has been collected from customers of Apple and Samsung and they can provide crucial information linked with the research. Moreover, the approach, philosophy employed have supported in generating fruitful results which are crucial for this study.
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