The study of Organizational Behaviour describe the manner in which employees interact within the group or business. It is normally applied with an aim of making an organization more effective and efficient. It refers to the study and application of knowledge about how people act within the company (What is organizational behaviour, 2017). It is a human tool made up for providing benefit to human only. It is mainly concerned with understanding, influencing and predicting individual behaviour in organizational setting. The given report is based on British Public Service Broadcaster(BBC) which is one of the oldest UK based national broadcasting company that deals in providing news and current affairs to general public. It covers different motivational theories, impact of politics, power and culture on individual and team performance, team effectiveness and theories related with organizational behaviour.
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A) Identify and discuss organizational culture within BBC using Handy's Typology
An organization can be described as a setup where different people collectively work together in order to achieve a common objective Every company is having certain principles and belief that form their culture and on the basis of that culture company decide the manner in which personnel amongst themselves and with other external parties. The culture of each entity vary from one another. It is essential for employees to adjust them self as per the cultures and policies of respective business entity.
Handy typology: The theory was proposed by Charles Handy in 1999. In his theory, he describes that organization are much similar to countries as each one is having its own culture expectation, beliefs and common values. However, these are likely to be changed with the passage of time. Therefore it is important for company to change their culture as per market trend. Handy describe the class of culture into four main categories that are mentioned below:
- Power Culture: He explain Power cultured as a spider web i.e. all important person who takes majority of decision on the behalf of company sits in the middle. There are few companies in which power remain in the hand of some special people and only they are authorizes to take majority of decision. In fact they enjoy special privilege at work surrounding. In such type of culture, subordinate are left with no other option rather than following the instruction given by their superior. In fact the employees does not have any liberty to express their views and ideas in open forum. Their role is to follow what their superior is saying (Ayyagari, Grover and Purvis, 2011).
- Role culture: under this type of culture rules and responsibilities are given to employees on the basis of their interest, skills, specialization and knowledge so as to extract best out of them. It has been believe that each and every person is responsible for doing something great and organizational culture promotes willingness of people to accept challenges and react accordingly.
- Task Culture: It is related with forming team in a company in order to achieve predefined goals and objectives in an effective and efficient manner. Under this type of culture employees with common interest and specialization grouped together and work as a team. A team is generally consist of 5-6 members and each member contributes equally towards attaining common task in most innovative and creative manner.
- Person Culture: Under this type of culture, employees consider themselves more important in regard of company. Individual are more concerned about their own thinking rather then paying attention towards organizational growth and development. Company following this type of culture generally takes a step back and ultimately suffers. The main motive of employees for coming to work place is only for the sake of money. In fact they are rarely loyal towards the entity and they never take decision in the favour of company (DeChurch and Mesmer-Magnus, 2010).
In BBC roughly 35000 representatives are as of now working. They basically underscore on patching up its way of life and strategies that we can remove best from their employees and consequently give advantages to them which esteems their commitment or work. Task culture is very popular among BBC as the company believes that with right set of leadership, skills, competencies and personalities a team can become highly productive that leads to generate higher probability ratio for the company. As the company believes in carrying out all business activities and operation with collective efforts of all employees. Hughes-D’Aeth has decided to revamp its business culture that promote people put their best in carrying out wok that has been assigned to them. They likewise centers on delayering of administration i.e. limiting chain of command level. For instance, BBC have decreased the quantity of better director by 40% so as than make better workplace for the staff individuals. It also give open in safe workplace, more beneficial administration understanding and breakdown of complex process into more straightforward one that at last prompts amplify general profitability and proficiency of their work constrain. With a specific end goal to build the proficiency and viability of their representatives they have organized different preparing programs for them to develop and build up their aptitude which is going to at last advantages them both at individual and expert level.
In case of BBC employees are well aware of their roles and responsibilities which help them in a accomplishing predefined task in a cost effective and timely manner
B) How culture,politics and power affect behaviour within the BBC
Organization Behaviour can be define as a procedure that depicts the conduct and attitude of human in an organization. Essentially it portrayed how a person interface with their colleagues in an association. It alludes to the investigation of power, culture and politics of a company that influence their overall performance and efficiency. An employee is associated with political issues when they change their capacity into strategy. Every single firm whether small or large influenced by both politics and power either in positive or in negative way (Graham and et. al., 2015). BBC centers around revamping its business culture with the goal that they can extricate best from their representatives and consequently give remuneration which esteems their work. It additionally centers around delayering of administration which intends to decreases or limit the progression level. For example, they have diminish the measure of better director by 40% all together than improve notwithstanding working condition for their staff. BBC centers around giving straightforward correspondence to its representatives so that the can don't hesitate to examine their issues. Aside from that BBC additionally focus around giving more healthy and positive working environment, worker commitment, breakdown of complex process into more straightforward frame etc. which builds the general profitability of their workforce with the goal that they can perform viably and productively. They are reasonably regarding their workers as a free individual so they can include them in their basic leadership process which influences them to feel as an important asset of the organization.
As indicated by the smith survey, BBC has begun dealing with their shortcoming by embracing corrective measures which increment the productivity and adequacy of their work force. Alongside this they have regenerate its power, politics and culture which give steadiness in their working condition which help them in achieving both long and short term objectives in a cost-effective and timely manner.
A) Content and Process Theory of Motivation
Motivation has been derived from the word “motive” which means desire, wants or needs of an individual. It can be described as a process of stimulating people to work incredibly hard towards attaining business goals and objectives in an effective and efficient manner. According to Stephen “It can be termed as the willingness of an employee to employ high level of efforts towards achieving defined target, conditioned by the effort capability to meet some personal need as well". Motivation can be classified into two types one is Content and other is Process which are discussed below:
Content theory: This theory mainly emphasize on various factors that are associated with motivating employee directly at workplace. It include:
- Herzberg’s two factor theory: This theory was given by Frederick Herzberg in 1959. According to Frederick there are various kind of job factors that exist at workplace namely Hygiene and Motivators that directly or indirectly affect human behaviour.
Hygiene factors: These are the jobs factors that are primary important for existence of motivation at workplace. Such type of job factor do not provide satisfaction for longer period but lack of these factor may lead to dissatisfaction among employees. Following are the factors that help BBC in motivating their workers in an effective manner :
- Company policies and administrative policies
- Working environment
- Fringe benefits salary structure
- Employee status
Motivational factors: These factors cannot be considered as motivators but they often yield positive satisfaction. Such Type of factors motivates employees to perform better. These factors are inherent to work (Coccia and Rolfo, 2013). Listed below are some factors that provide long term satisfaction to employees of BBC are as follows:
- Sense of recognition
- Growth and promotional opportunities
- Meaningfulness of the work
- Higher sense of achievement
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The theory was given by Abraham Maslow in 1940. Maslow's categorize the need of human into five main needs that are discussed below:
- Physiological Needs: These are the essential need which individual require for their survival, for example, air, water, survival
- Safety needs: These requirements create security factors among individual as far as giving solidness, security.
- Social-Belongingness needs: Such needs provide sense of belongingness, love with loved ones which inspires them.
- Esteem Needs: At this stage, person begin creating and enhancing confidence and self-esteem such as respect, dignity etc.
- Self-realization needs: At this level, each person pertain their full potential. Essentially it expresses the craving and need of person that he/she is able or capability of getting to be.
Above mentioned is a motivational theory followed by manager of BBC in its business culture.
- Process theory: This theory mainly focuses on identifying the factor related with how and why motivation occurs. Following are some theories that is applied by BBC in its work culture:
Reinforcement theory: The theory was proposed by BF Skinner and he states that behaviour of an individual is function of its result or consequences. This theory mainly overlooks the internal state of an individual. It categorized into:
Positive reinforcement: Under this, positive response must be given to a person when an individual show positive and required behaviour towards the organization. For example: At BBC, coming early to job means getting immediate praise. This will indirectly motivates him. Such kind of reinforcement stimulates occurrence of behaviour and as a result employee performance improves.
Negative reinforcement: Under this negative rewards are given to employees on the basis of their work performance
BBC is practising above mentioned motivational theories in their work culture which propels their staff to work more effectively and efficiently. Such speculations empower the firm to increase higher likelihood proportion for longer run. BBC states that there is immediate relationship that exist between the execution of a representative and their remuneration benefits. BBC paid employees as indicated by their execution. They took a gander at every staff separately and gives them opportunity as far as their self-awareness and recognition. BBC additionally give at work preparing to its workforce by placing them in Birmingham office, which rouses the faculty to become advance at hierarchical level. Aside from this, BBC additionally gives direction and exhortation to its workers which improve their general profitability level.
B) Explain how organizational goals can be achieve through improved motivation level
Different inspiration speculations empowers the representatives of BBC to work usefully in achieving their authoritative objective. On the off chance that workers are persuaded, they can put their best in their execution and in actuality spurs the other staff also. Inspired representatives utilize the assets in an ideal way. SMART objectives has been set by motivated employees keeping in mind the end goal to achieve general hierarchical objective viably. BBC inspire their staff by remembering their longing and need which causes them to create co-activity among their workers. Motivated personnel of BBC have security in their work which persuades the other faculty also. Propelled individual can enhance the business association efficiency and benefit proportion successfully. In an organization, vast number of the individual are work with each other with the point of accomplishing long haul objectives and targets.
A) Determine and state different types of team
Team Building provide support and feeling of commitment and belongingness. Team is characterized as a gathering of people cooperate for a typical target. In BBC, cooperation by team and its members exceptionally contributes in giving arrangements of the issues in a viable way and improve the profitability of the firm by decreasing expense in a proficient way.
Project Team: It is a group in which people belong to different groups, functions and work is assigned with different task but of a same project. As indicated by the prerequisites, groups can be bifurcate. All team members in BBC perform on a specific task and the groups are framed for a particular time-frame. In BBC, these groups contributes in finishing the particular activities on time.
Functional Team: These are the changeless groups and every one of group are from same utilitarian division however the obligation of every part is unique. Each individual reports to the supervisor and he is subject for everything. In BBC, these groups are useful in taking care of everyday works of the association. Members of functional team in BBC have deep trust in each other and everyone is working towards the common goal.
Virtual Team: In virtual groups, people work jointly from various places or areas to achieve regular reason or objective. For performing a specific task, a virtual team is created and kept up by utilizing IT and programming advancements. In BBC, business goals and objectives can be accomplished in a better manner with clear and effective communication. The main advantage of these team in BBC is it promote culture of openness that facilitate trust among its members. In addition to that, their employees are having positive work attitude that gives them high competitive edge in the market.
Problem Solving Team: These groups are shaped for comprehending a specific issue and are transitory groups. These groups bargains adequately with the issues emerges amid the task. With the help of facilitators, line supervisors meet up and gives arrangements towards constant issues of a venture. Critical thinking groups give effective answers for the issues that emerges amid the working of business in BBC. As the BBC is focusing on revamping its culture, problem solving team play key role in it as they critically examine the prevailing situation and formulate strategies accordingly.
In this way, having distinctive sorts of groups is fundamental for BBC as every one of these groups helps the organization in improving the efficiency in practical way and achievement of objectives. The groups gives answers for everyday issues that emerges at working environment which helps development and achievement of the firm.
B) States factors that makes an effective team
Tuckman model of team development: This model focuses on the development of team and its member. At certain times, employees of BBC faces difficulty in terms of adjusting or interacting properly among other group members because of the existence of different kinds of individual. Thus, in order to overcome such type of situation, BBC has decided to follow Tuckman Model of team development in which team is categorize into four section which are discussed below:
- Forming: At this stage members are polite and positive. Some are anxious as they are not fully aware of their roles and responsibility. While there are others simply excited about the task ahead. But they are highly depend upon leaders for guidance and direction. Basically at this stage, BBC leaders must prepare themselves to answer lots of question asked by its followers regarding team's objective, purpose, external relationship etc.
- Storming: At this stage people start pushing them self against the boundary i.e. start putting efforts. This stage generally deals with when there is a conflict going on among team members because of different working style and perspective of individuals. Therefore, people started building trust and good relationship team members (Huang and Bond, 2012). In this particular stage, leaders of BBC tries to establish good relationship with its employees.
- Norming: At this particular stage, team members start resolving their differences own their own and appreciating co- worker strengths. Since now team is well known to each other they can socialize together and can ask for help from other colleague. In its revamp culture,leaders tries to engage their follower in fun and social activities. Along with this, leaders of BBC emphasize on taking any big decision is made with the consent of all group members
- Performing: This is the last stage where hard work leads to yield higher profitability and revenues without friction i.e. accomplishment of team goal in a cost effective and timely manner. In other words, at this point of stage, BBC team members shares great rapport with each other that indirectly promote healthy working environment in respective organization.
Along with this, there are certain characteristic that makes a team effective and used by BBC are discussed below:
- Balanced Roles: Appropriate adjust of desires, aptitudes and capacities should show in a group. The individuals from the group have clear comprehension of person's part so as to achieve the targets of general group.
- Effective Communication: Interaction between the colleagues ought to be successful. There ought to be gainful gatherings and viable correspondence over the association.
A) Using models suggest how team productivity and performance can be improved at BBC
Path goal theory: This theory specifically define leader's style or behaviour that fits best the employee and work environment in order to accomplish a particular goal. The main goal of BBC is to maximize worker empowerment, motivation and satisfaction so that they can effectively become productive member of the company. Both goal and path are interlinked with each other. It is based on Vroom's expectancy theory. It generally follows 3 steps which are defined below:
- Identify the employee and environmental characteristics.
- Select a leadership style
- Focus on various motivational factor that assist in employee success.
Employee Characteristics: Employee determine their leader’s behaviour on the basis of their need such as desire for control, degree of structure they need and perceived level of ability (Koenig and et.al.,2011). For instance: If BBC leader provide more structure then what is required by its followers then there might be chances that they become less motivated. Therefore it is important for leader to understand their employee first so that they can figure out ways that help in best motivating them.
Task and environmental characteristics: Overcoming or eliminating obstacles is the main focus of path goal theory. If somehow an obstacle becomes too strong then the leaders of BBC needs to step ahead and employee in selecting a path to effectively work around it. Some of the task characteristics that often arise mentioned below:
- Design of the task
- Formal authority system
Leaders behaviour or style: There are 4 types of leader behaviour found under path goal theory:
Directive: Such types of leader pre inform their followers regarding what is expected from them such as telling them how to do a task what to do coordinating and scheduling work. It is highly effective when people are unsure about their task.
Supportive: Such types of leader provide assistance to their followers and makes environment pleasant for employees by showing concern for them and by being easily approachable and friendly.
Participative: Such type of leader often discuss task with their followers before making final decision. They usually involve them decision making process so as to get them feel valued and important. After re-generate its structure, leaders of BBC are usually following this style as now they take all big decision with the mutual consent of all its followers or by involving them in decision making process which will ultimately makes them feel valued and important. As a result they feel themselves as a crucial asset of the company and work incredibly hard towards achieving business gaols and objectives.
Achievement: The leaders set challenging goal for their followers and expect them to perform accordingly and put their best achieving those goals.
With the application of this approach BBC execute change in their management. Their leaders promote open working environment that enable employee to put their suggestion and opinion. If management and communication related issues are being resolved effectively chances of arising conflict becomes less and healthy and positive working environment remains maintain within the company. This will lead to achieve organizational goal in structured and thorough manner (Judge and Kammeyer‐Mueller, 2012).
B) Barriers to effective team performance
- Poor communication
- Lack of Management involvement
- Unclear goals and objectives
- Wrong Leadership style
Due to hazy objectives, poor correspondence and absence of administration, BBC confront different issues with respect to powerful execution of firm. In this way, it is important that objectives ought to be clear, legitimate correspondence channels must be utilized so workers can openly speak with administration and all the data can be passed on appropriately. This will decrease the odds of happening miscommunication that arises in BBC (Owings and Kaplan, 2012). Association of administration is additionally fundamental in exercises of organization so powerful choices can be taken. It is additionally required by administration to include staff individuals in procedure of basic leadership. It makes a feeling of belongingness among representatives and they work in better way towards achievement of destinations of firm.
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According to the above mentioned assignment report it can be concluded that organizational success and growth depend upon the behaviour of their workforce towards achieving business objectives and goals. It is important to keep employees motivated as it help firm in earning higher profits and sales ratio. There are different theories related with motivation, company need to select as per the skill and competency of an employee. Chances of attaining high competitive edge in the market increases when a task is carried out an effective team. Also various organizational theories has also been discussed in this report that depicts different styles of leadership that help company in attaining pre-defined goals in an effective and efficient manner.
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